Bibliographies

The WORCK Annotated Bibliographies are expert guides to various topics in the study of labour and coercion.

Early studies of Nordic servants written in the first half of the twentieth century focused on legal frameworks, Lutheran teachings regarding the position of the servant in the household, and the role of servants’ labour in agriculture. These studies often viewed service from a functionalist perspective, explaining changes in laws and practices as effects of economic changes. Later studies instead foregrounded the continuity of the servant position.

Under communism, the mobilisation of voluntary workers played an important role for the Albanian economy as well as the self-conception of socialist society. Since 1945, the Albanian Communist Party proclaimed voluntary work as being a pure act of individual voluntary action, based on the love for the homeland and the “Mother Party”. In 1946, the first communist constitution of Albania stated that all those able to work should be mobilised for voluntary work.

Slavery in the United States was already the focus of academic discussions during its existence. After its abolition in 1865, the historical study of American slavery was dominated by “plantation nostalgia,” a school of thought portraying the Old South as a harmonious society of paternalistic slaveholders and grateful slaves. This overall perspective was dominant in the late-nineteenth and twentieth centuries.